Long-running political and cultural clashes between the Mexican government and American settlers in Texas intensified when conservative forces took control in Mexico and enacted the Siete Leyes of 1835, which replaced the Constitution of 1824 and its federal system with the 1835 Constitution of Mexico and a provisional centralized government. The new laws were unpopular throughout Mexico, and they provoked secession movements and violence in several Mexican states.
Open warfare began in Texas on October 2, 1835, with the Battle of Gonzales. Early Texian Army successes at La Bahía and San Antonio were soon reversed when the Mexican Army retook the territory a few months later. The war ended at the Battle of San Jacinto, where the Texian army under General Sam Houston routed the Mexican forces with a surprise attack.
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