During the interwar period, aircraft and tank technologies matured and were combined with systematic application of the traditional German tactics of deep penetration and bypassing of enemy strong points to encircle and destroy enemy force in a Kesselschlacht. When Germany invaded Poland in 1939, Western journalists adopted the term blitzkrieg to describe this form of armoured warfare. However, the term had already made an appearance as early as 1935, in a German military periodical Deutsche Wehr, in connection to quick or lightning warfare. Blitzkrieg operations were very effective during the campaigns of 1939–1941, and by 1940 the term had gained extensive use in Western media and journalism. The blitzkrieg operations capitalized on surprise penetrations, general enemy unpreparedness, and an inability to react swiftly enough to the attacker's offensive operations. During the Battle of France, the French, who made attempts to re-form defensive lines along rivers, were constantly frustrated when German forces arrived there first and pressed on.
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