Distractions while driving can be separated into three distinct groups: visual, manual, and cognitive. Visual distraction involves taking one's eyes off the road, while manual distraction involves taking one's hands off the wheel. Cognitive distraction occurs when an individual's focus is not directly on the act of driving and his mind "wanders". All distractions compromise the safety of not only the driver, but passengers, bystanders, and other individuals on the road and within the surrounding environment. Distractions influenced by technology, especially text messaging or talking on the phone, require a combination of visual, manual, and cognitive attention from the driver, thus making these types of distractions particularly dangerous. According to the United States Department of Transportation, "text messaging while driving creates a crash risk 23 times higher than driving while not distracted." Despite these statistics, more than 37% of drivers have admitted to sending or receiving text messages while driving, and 18% admit doing so regularly.
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