Following periods of successive habitation by Celts, Romans, Huns, Slavs, Gepids, and Avars, the foundation of Hungary was laid in the late 9th century by the Hungarian grand prince Árpád. His great-grandson Saint Stephen I ascended to the throne in 1000 AD, converting the country to a Christian kingdom. The Kingdom of Hungary existed for 946 years and at various points was regarded as one of the cultural centers of the Western world. After the Battle of Mohács and about 150 years of partial Ottoman occupation, Hungary became part of the Habsburg Empire, and later formed part of the Austro–Hungarian Empire.
Hungary's modern borders were first established by the Treaty of Trianon after World War I. The country lost more than 71% of its territory, 58% of its population, and 32% of the Hungarians. On the side of the Axis Powers, Hungary also suffered great damages in World War II. During its four decades long communist dictatorship, the country gained widespread international attention regarding the Revolution of 1956 and the seminal opening of its border with Austria in 1989, previously restricted by the Iron Curtain, which accelerated the collapse of the Eastern Bloc.
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