Substance is a key concept in ontology and metaphysics, which may be classified into monist, dualist or pluralist varieties according to how many substances or individuals are said to populate, furnish or exist in the world. According to Monistic views, such as those of stoicism and Spinoza, there is only one substance, pneuma or God, respectively. These modes of thinking are sometimes associated with the idea of immanence. Dualism sees the world as being composed of two fundamental substances, for example, the Cartesian substance dualism of mind and matter. Pluralist philosophies include Plato's Theory of Forms and Aristotle's hylomorphic categories.
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