The Political Condition
The English Civil War led to the trial, and execution of Charles I, the exile of his son, Charles II, and replacement of English monarchy with, first, the Commonwealth of England, and then with a Protectorate, under Oliver Cromwell's personal rule. The monopoly of the Church of England on Christian worship in England ended with the victors consolidating the established Protestant Ascendancy in Ireland. Constitutionally, the wars established the precedent that an English monarch cannot govern without Parliament's consent, although this concept was legally established only with the Glorious Revolution later in the century.
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